Ground tracks and ground stations

The bland-coloured, continuous paths show the ground tracks of the satellite from the three different methods:

The brightly coloured circles show the ground stations—you can drag the circles to change their location.

The brightly coloured paths are parts of the trajectory where the station has a view of the satellite. To simplify, we assume a ground station has a view of the satellite when the satellite is at an angle >5° above the horizon. RK4-J2 is taken as the reference position for calculating these.

Scroll to zoom in and out.

Ground station views

The four plots show the trajectory of the satellite in azimuth and elevation relative to a ground station. They use a stereographic projection (which is like facing South and looking straight up in the sky).

The area hidden by the mask angle (5°) is shaded in gray—the mask angle is marked with a subtle, dashed line.

Rise and set times

The blocks show the time intervals the satellite is in line of sight (above the mask angle) from a specific ground station.

Oblateness differences in HCL

Keplerian elements

Semi-major axis



Argument of perigee

Right ascension of ascending node

True anomaly